Thursday, June 23, 2016

What is the Harvard system and when do I use it?



HARVARD STYLE

Inderscience hosts 413 academic journals and they require the use of Harvard formatting.  As an academic researcher who wishes to publish a paper, this will most probably be the reason for the use of the Harvard system.  From the Inderscience 'Guidelines for Authors' page, the following is stated:


Inderscience journals use the Harvard (name and date) short reference system for citations in the text with a detailed alphabetical list at the end of the article. For example 'Hamel (2000) suggests ...' or 'Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995) found that ...' or 'A study of economic change (Nelson and Winter, 1982) has shown that ...'

The Inderscience Author Guideline PDF can be found here

In the following examples for both print and online journals, we see that Inderscience (Harvard) requires an 'and' between the author names (APA uses an '&').  Also, note there is no 'period/full stop' after the year (2011).  APA places a '.' after (2011). Another significant difference is the ' placed before and after the article title.  APA once again does not use '. 









HARVARD STYLE
Hooper, D., Coughlan, J. and Mullen, M. R. (2008) Structural Equation Modelling: Guidelines for Determining Model Fit’, The Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, Vol. 6, Iss. 1, pp. 53 – 60, [online] http://tinyurl.com/jd5x332 (Accessed 1 April 2016).

APA STYLE
Hooper, D., Coughlan, J., & Mullen, M. R. (2008). Structural equation modelling: Guidelines for determining model fit. The Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, 6(1), 53 – 60. Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/jd5x332

The Australasian Journal of Educational Technology (AJET) uses APA. Here is a link to their style/submission guide. - AJET-http://ajet.org.au/index.php/AJET/about/submissions
 


Please note that some journals such as Kasetsart Journal of Social Sciences (KJSS-APA style) also requires the words used in paper titles to be lower case, so the above reference for Hooper et al. would look like this:
Hooper, D., Coughlan, J., & Mullen, M. R. (2008). Structural equation modelling: Guidelines for determining model fit. The Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, 6(1), 53 – 60. Retrieved from http://preview.tinyurl.com/jd5x332

It therefore becomes critical that each paper adapt the journal's required system (APA, Harvard, Chicago, IEEE, Oxford, etc.) but in most cases, each journal will have their own 'spin' on what is required.  



Books




Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Black, B. J., Babin, B. J. and Anderson, R. E. (2006) Multivariate Data Analysis A Global perspective, 7th ed., Pearson Education, Inc, New Jersey. 

You will note that in the above example that the publisher's location (New Jersey) is after the publisher name.  In APA this is reversed. 

User Guides/Software Manuals

Although the Inderscience PDF does not specifically address this type of reference, I would use the style for a book.  So the following SPSS manual would look like this:

Arbuckle, J. L. (2011) IBM SPSS Amos 20 User's Guide, Amos Development Corporation, [online] http://tinyurl.com/z7hfobh (Accessed 1 April 2016).

Another point I would like to make is why I always use tinyurl.com for my online references.  In the following example from the Inderscience PDF, we see a very long URL to the referenced document.  If however you use tinyurl.com, the second example becomes much shorter.  If you do this for 30-50 references, you can immediately see how much shorter, cleaner and more consistent your paper becomes. 

 Harvard Online only
 Demers, A. (2009) ‘The war at home: consequences of loving a veteran of the Iraq
and Afghan wars.’ The Internet Journal of Mental Health, 6(1) [online]
http://www.ispub.com/journal/the_internet_journal_of_mental_health/volume_6_numb
er_1_45/article/the-war-at-home-consequences-of-loving-a-veteran-of-the-iraq-and-
afghanistan-wars.html (Accessed 15 July 2010).


 Demers, A. (2009) ‘The war at home: consequences of loving a veteran of the Iraq and Afghan wars.’ The Internet Journal of Mental Health, 6(1) [online] http://tinyurl.com/h7vlajq  (Accessed 15 July 2010).

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