Thursday, November 17, 2016

Did you know there were 28,100 active scholarly peer-reviewed English-language journals in late 2014?

  • The annual revenues generated from English-language STM journal publishing are estimated at about $10 billion in 2013, (up from $8 billion in 2008, representing a CAGR of about 4.5%), within a broader STM information publishing market worth some $25.2 billion. About 55% of global STM revenues (including non-journal STM products) come from the USA, 28% from Europe/Middle East, 14% from Asia/Pacific and 4% from the rest of the world.
  • There were about 28,100 active scholarly peer-reviewed English-language journals in late 2014 (plus a further 6450 non-English-language journals), collectively publishing about
    2.5 million articles a year. The number of articles published each year and the number of journals have both grown steadily for over two centuries, by about 3% and 3.5% per year
    respectively, though there are some indications that growth has accelerated in recent years. The reason is the equally persistent growth in the number of researchers, which has also grown at about 3% per year and now stands at between 7 and 9 million,
    depending on definition, although only about 20% of these are repeat authors. 
  • There are estimated to be of the order of 5000–10,000 journal publishers globally, of which around 5000 are included in the Scopus database.  (Remember however, that Jeffrey Beall has 'blacklisted' over 1,000 of these publishers in his infamous 'Beall List'.)
  • The main English-language trade and professional associations for journal publishers collectively include about 650 publishers producing around 11,550 journals, that is, about 50% of the total journal output by title. Of these, some 480 publishers (73%) and about 2300 journals (20%) are not-for-profit.
  • The USA continues to dominates the global output of research papers with a share of about 23% but the most dramatic growth has been in China and East Asia. China’s double-digit compound growth for more than 15 years led to its moving into second position, with 17% of global output. It is followed by the United Kingdom (7%), Germany (6%), Japan (6%), and France (4%). The rank order changes for citations, however, with the US strongly in the lead with 36% and China at 11th place with 6%. 
  • The typical reviewer spends 5 hours per review and reviews some 8 articles a year.
  • The average 2010 cost of publishing an article in a
    subscription-based journal with print and electronic editions was estimated by CEPA to be around £3095 (excluding non-cash peer review costs).
  • There are around 10,090 (7245 published in English) fully open access journals listed on the Directory of Open Access Journals.
  • Recent estimates place the proportion of articles published in open access journals at about 12% (while OA journals make up about 26-29% of all journals), with 5% more available via delayed access on the publisher’s website, and a further
    10-12% via self-archived copies. 
  • The majority of R&D expenditure is funded by industry: about 66% in the US, 54% in the EU (ranging from 45% in the UK to 70% in Germany), and between 60% and 64% in China,
    Singapore and Taiwan. The fraction of R&D that is performed by industry is even higher, at a little over 70% in the US, for instance (NSF 2012; Battelle 2011; 2013). This is important for
    publishing, because the majority of research papers originate from academic authors.
  • The latest available OECD statistics report a researcher headcount of 8.4 million for 2011 (a full-time equivalent of 6.3 million), covering the OECD plus some key non-OECD countries (e.g. China and Russia) but excluding some other important countries (e.g. India, Brazil). This was an increase of 7.5% on 2010, reflecting a bounce back from the recession when numbers fell. The average annual growth between 2000 and 2011 was 4.2% (headcount) and 3.2% (FTE), suggesting a trend of greater part-time work (OECD n.d.). (And Thailand has budgeted US$1 billion to add 12,290 more for 10 key industries. Furthermore, Malaysia wants to add another 60,000 PhDs to its existing 23,000.)
  •  The majority of the above data was extracted from the 2015 STM: International Association of Scientific, Technical and Medical Publishers Report. The Fourth Edition was published March 2015; updated with minor revisions November 2015. The link to this 180 page PDF file is here.

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